Kathleen Kuiper was Senior Editor, Arts & Culture, Encyclopædia Britannica until 2016. ): Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. He died the next day. He was the son of a Lutheran pastor of Neubuckov, near Meckleburgo, who died when the young Schliemann was only seven years old. The French geologist Ferdinand Fouqué dug at Santorin in 1862 and found fresco-covered walls of houses and painted pottery beneath 26 feet (8 metres) of pumice, the result of the great eruption that divided the original island into Thera (modern Thíra) and Therasis (modern Thirasía). In 1846 his firm sent him to St. Petersburg as an agent. These, he supposed, were the riches of Troy hurriedly buried in the panic of the Greek siege. When he was eleven years old, Heinrich enrolled in the Gymnasium (gra… In the 2007 German television film The Hunt for Troy, Sophia Engastromenou was portrayed by the French actress Mélanie Doutey. The reality, according to David Traill's 1995 biography, Schliemann of Troy: Treasure and Deceit, and bolstered by Susan Heuck Allen's 1999 work Finding the Walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann, is that most of this is romantic baloney, manufactured by Schliemann for the sake of his own image, ego, and public persona. II. At age 14 he was apprenticed to a grocer, and—again, according to Schliemann—it was in the grocer’s shop that he heard Homer declaimed in the original Greek. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. He had a passion and a flair for languages, as well as a remarkable memory, and those factors, combined with great energy and determination, enabled him to learn to read and write several languages fluently. Heinrich Schliemann, in full Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann, (born January 6, 1822, Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin [Germany]—died December 26, 1890, Naples, Italy), German archaeologist and excavator of Troy, Mycenae, and Tiryns. When he was a hungry, unhappy little boy Heinrich Schliemann had heard the story of Troy. His father was a minister of religion and the family, which grew to include several children, was not too prosperous by all accounts. The Lion Gate in Mycenae, Greece, constructed of stone, c. 1250, Gold funerary mask of an unknown Mycenaean ruler, 16th century. Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann born January 6, 1822 – died December 26, 1890 was a German businessman and classical archaeologist, an advocate They were married on 24 September 1869, and would go on to have two children, Andromache (1871-1962) and Agamemnon (1878-1954). Dr. Heinrich Schliemann with his wife. She inspired the 2013 novel Sophia: A Woman's Search for Troy by Nancy Joaquim. Sofia Engastromenou was born in Athens to a wealthy mercantile family.  Presented with photos of three women, Schliemann selected the seventeen-year-old Sofia. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. (Photo by Time Life Pictures/Mansell/The LIFE Picture Collection via Getty Images) To train himself, he traveled extensively in Greece, Italy, Scandinavia, Germany, and Syria and then went around the world, visiting India, China, and Japan (he wrote a book about the last two countries). However, some of his claims, as we have seen, have been questionable and even disproved with modern evidence. Sophie Schliemann, wife of archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, wearing the jewels of Helen of Troy. The Life of Heinrich Schliemann, The Man Who Proved The Legends True. By the time Heinrich Schliemann was 36 years old, he had enough money that retiring at such an early age had become a viable option. Returning to Russia, he retired from business at age 36 and began to devote his energies and money to the study of prehistoric archaeology. She is known for posing for a photo while draped in the gold jewelry from the Treasure of Priam. Heinrich Schliemann (1822 – 1890) was a German businessman and the real man who pioneered of field archaeology. Media related to Sophia Schliemann at Wikimedia Commons, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sophia_Schliemann&oldid=991729110, Articles to be expanded from September 2019, Articles needing translation from Russian Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In 1873 he uncovered fortifications and the remains of a city of great antiquity, and he discovered a treasure of gold jewelry (as well as vessels of bronze, gold, and silver), which he smuggled out of Turkey. Sophia Schliemann, wife of German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) who discovered site of ancient Troy, bedecked with ornaments found in the excavation. The truth about Troy, part one: never really forgotten. In 1993, more than a century after the legendary excavations at Troy by Heinrich Schliemann, Korfmann announced that remote sensing images made using a cesium magnetometer indicated the presence of a huge buried wall that ran around Hissarlik, at a distance of about 1300 feet from the citadel. Since the discrepancy of the gravitational potential energy function for the acceleration found is small enough to fill this critical gap in will suspend placement of future generations to decode its complex iconography. In his last two seasons Schliemann had the expert assistance of Wilhelm Dörpfeld, who was a practical architect and had worked at the German excavations at Olympia. Adventurer. In 1869, just before setting off for Turkey, where he astounded the world by excavating the long-lost city of Troy (so lost that most experts thought it was mythic), Heinrich Schliemann came to Indiana’s capitol city with an unusual goal: to get a divorce from his Russian wife, who lived on the other side of the globe. The following year, after he met with the English archaeologist Frank Calvert, Schliemann published his first archaeological book, Ithaka, der Peloponnes und Troja (“Ithaca, the Peloponnese, and Troy”). Biography of Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) German archaeologist, born on January 6, 1822 in Ankershagen (Mecklenburg) and died on December 26, 1890 in Naples, considered the father of modern archaeology. Certainly one of the most sensational news stories of the nineteenth century was the discovery by Heinrich Schliemann of what is now widely assumed to be the site of Troy, the city in and around which The Iliad of Homer takes place. Sophia Schliemann wurde weltberühmt vor allem durch eine Fotografie, die sie im Goldschmuck aus dem vermeintlichen Schatz des Königs Priamos zeigt. After an unsuccessful excavation in Ithaca in 1878, he resumed work at Hisarlık the same year. Updates? For example, he told the world about a set of beautiful artifacts that he labeled “The Treasure of Priam.” He even had his wife dress up wearing some of the lovely gold jewelry. By one of his autobiographical accounts, it was a picture of Troy in flames in a history book his father had given him when he was seven years old that remained in his memory throughout his life and sustained his fervent belief in the historical foundations of the Homeric poems. In 1879 he was assisted by Émile Burnouf, a classical archaeologist, and by Rudolf Virchow, the famous German pathologist, who was also the founder of the German Society for Anthropology, Ethnology, and Prehistory. Troy VI (the sixth layer) rather than Troy I (the lowest layer) was later identified as Homeric Troy (1500–1000 bce). Heinrich Schliemann. Toward the end of his life, Schliemann suffered greatly with ear trouble and traveled in Europe, visiting specialists and hoping for a cure. A wealthy man, Schliemann could pay for a big archaeological dig. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 14:48. While people in the west had no idea that Hisarlık was Troy until the early nineteenth century, the local people living in the area around Hisarlık always had some idea that Hisarlık was the site of ancient Troy. In 1868 Schliemann took his large fortune to Greece, visiting Homeric sites there and in Asia Minor. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Schliemann has been praised and given recognition for shining new light on ancient Greek civilization, and is often heralded as a father of archaeology. Between excavations, Schliemann lived in his Athens mansion, which was filled with early Greek art objects. Dörpfeld brought to Troy the new system and efficiency of the German classical archaeologists working in Greece, and he was able to expose the stratigraphy at Troy more clearly than before and to revolutionize Schliemann’s techniques. In August 1876 he began work in the tholoi, digging by the Lion Gate and then inside the citadel walls, where he found a double ring of slabs and, within that ring, five shaft graves (a sixth was found immediately after his departure). When Schliemann proposed to resume work at Hisarlık in February 1874, he was delayed by a lawsuit that the Ottoman government had brought against him about the division of his spoils, particularly the gold treasure, and it was not until April 1876 that he obtained permission to resume work. In 1869, he acquired property in Indianapolis and relocated there. Born to a poor grocer, Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) first heard Homer recited in the original Greek when he worked as grocer’s apprentice at the age of 14. In great pain and alone, on December 25, 1890, while walking across a square in Naples, he collapsed. A man of enormous linguistic ability and personal determination, he combined a romantic enthusiasm and the calculating abilities of a practical realist in his search for the historical sites of Homeric Greece. Calvert himself had dug at Hisarlık and, authorities now believe, was instrumental in convincing Schliemann, whose financial resources were much greater than Calvert’s, that Hisarlık was the site of Troy. In 1852 he married Ekaterina Lyschin. Schliemann was the son of a poor pastor. Schliemann had hoped to find—and believed he had found—the tombs of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, and he published his finds in his Mykenä (1878; “Mycenae”). Heinrich Schliemann, the German archaeologist, was in Turkey in the late 19th century on an eccentric quest. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections?  After her husband's death in 1890 Sophia continued to give lectures on his work and hosted gatherings in her Athenian residence, the Iliou Melathron. They had two children, Andromache and Agamemnon. × Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Agamemnon Schliemann (Greek: Αγαμέμνων Σλήμαν, 1878-1954) was the Greek ambassador to the United States in 1914.Wikipedia EN After divorcing his first wife, he married Sophia Engastromenos, an Athenian, in 1869. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Biography of Heinrich Schliemann (1822-90) Heinrich Schliemann (1822-90) was born in what is now Germany. In that work he argued what he had been convinced of by Calvert (whose name he conveniently eliminated from the discussion): that Hisarlık, in Asia Minor, and not Bunarbashi (Pınarbaşı), a short distance south of it, was the site of Troy. In 1880, 1881, and 1886, he excavated the site of the Treasury of Minyas, at Orchomenus in Boeotia, but he found little there but the remains of a beautiful ceiling. Heinrich Schliemann established archeology as the science that we know today. However, it proved to predate the era he thought it to be. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Heinrich-Schliemann, Age of the Sage - Transmitting the Wisdoms of the Ages - Biography of Heinrich Schliemann, Heinrich Schliemann - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). By 1858, Schliemann was wealthy enough to retire and decided to devote himself to … He also studied archaeology in Paris. He further claimed that the graves of the Greek commander Agamemnon and his wife, Clytemnestra, at Mycenae, which had been described by the Greek geographer Pausanias, were not the tholoi (vaulted tombs) outside the citadel walls but lay inside the citadel. Nevertheless, the treasure he had found and smuggled out was thereafter identified as Priam’s Treasure. Heinrich Schliemann, in full Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann, (born January 6, 1822, Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin [Germany]—died December 26, 1890, Naples, Italy), German archaeologist and excavator of Troy, Mycenae, and Tiryns.He is sometimes considered to be the modern discoverer of prehistoric Greece, though scholarship in the late 20th and early 21st centuries revealed … He was born Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann in Neubukow (Mecklenburg) on January 6, 1822, the fifth of nine children of the Lutheran minister Ernst Schliemann (1780–1870) and his wife Luise (1793–1831), daughter of the Mayor of Sternberg. Buried with 16 bodies in the circle of shaft graves was a large treasure of gold, silver, bronze, and ivory objects. Schliemann died on Dec. 26, 1890, in Naples, Italy. After it was finalised, Schliemann moved to Athens. Sophia Schliemann (griechisch Σοφία Εγκαστρωμένου; 1852-1932) war die zweite Ehefrau des Troja-Entdeckers Heinrich Schliemann. By all accounts Heinrich’s early life was a hard one, especially when his mother died in 1831 when Heinrich was only nine years old, whereafter his father sent Heinrich to live with his uncle, Friedrich. He made a fortune at the time of the Crimean War, mainly as a military contractor. Early life. Heinrich Schliemann archaeologist Archaeology of Troy Heinrich Schliemann (Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann) was born in January 1822 in the German territory of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Read on and find out what he discovered. Sophia Schliemann, born Sophia Engastromenou (Σοφία Εγκαστρωμένου) (12 January 1852 - 27 October 1932) was the Greek second wife of the archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann during his excavation of the ruins of Troy. Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) was a German merchant, world traveler, and archeologist. Geologists at that time dated the Santorin eruption to 2000 bce, which suggested a great antiquity for Fouqué’s finds and the existence of prehistoric cultures thitherto unknown in the Aegean. ABOVE: Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann from 1879. In 1869, just before setting off for Turkey, where he astounded the world by excavating the long-lost city of Troy (so lost that most experts thought it was mythic), Heinrich Schliemann came to Indiana’s capitol city with an unusual goal: to get a divorce from his Russian wife, who lived on the other side of the globe. Sophia spent the rest of her life as a member of Athenian high society and sponsor of charitable endeavors. He is often used as a good example for archaeology students of how it shouldn't be done. Heinrich Schliemann. Soon thereafter Schliemann again took center stage when he proclaimed he’d found a trove of jewels and gold buried in a chest. Accounts vary, but his competence certainly included Russian and both ancient and modern Greek. Omissions? Allison taylor dissertation heinrich schliemann with dehydration essay of glucose monomers Photograph, anon. After the vessel was wrecked off the Dutch coast, he became an office boy and then a bookkeeper for a trading firm in Amsterdam. Sophia Schliemann, Heinrich’s wife, wearing what he believed to be the treasure of Priam / Wikimedia Commons. Heinrich Schliemann; Sophia Schliemann (ed. In 1863 Schliemann gave up his Russian enterprises to devote his time and wealth to the pursuit of his childhood dream, the discovery of historical Troy and Homer's Greece.  The institution has since become the Sotiria Thoracic Disease Hospital, the largest pulmonary center in Greece.. A number of isolated discoveries had been made before Schliemann began digging. Sophia was a central character in Irving Stone's 1975 historical novel The Greek Treasure. In the meantime, he divorced his Russian wife and married (1869) a young Greek schoolgirl named Sophia Engastromenos, whom he had selected through a marriage bureau. He set out in 1864 on a world tour which took him to Carthage, India, China, Japan, and America, where he received citizenship, for which he had applied during an earlier visit. In his first season he had worked with only his wife. His discoveries and theories, first published in Trojanische Alterthümer (1874; Troy and Its Remains), were received skeptically by many scholars, but others—including the prime minister of England, William Ewart Gladstone, himself a classical scholar, and a wide public—accepted Schliemann’s identification. There he founded a business on his own and embarked, among other things, on the indigo trade. During the delay he published Troja und seine Ruinen (1875; “Troy and Its Ruins”) and began excavation at Mycenae. Heinrich Schliemann is credited as Archaeologist, businessman, xcavator of the Mycenaean sites of Troy, Mycenae and Tiryns. Heinrich Schliemann's firm belief in the truth of Homer's epics and his perseverance enabled him to become a famous archaeologist with many big finds. He believed in the historical accuracy of Homer’s Iliad and Virgil’s Aeneid and that they told stories that reflected actual historical events. He believed that the Homeric Troy must be in the lowest level of the mound, and he dug uncritically through the upper levels. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In the 1850s he was in the United States and became a U.S. citizen, retaining that nationality for the rest of his life. Heinrich Schliemann was a true rags to riches story, a man of German origin who became wealthy by being a shrewd businessman. His plan was to divorce his wife through Indiana’s liberal divorce laws. In 1871 Schliemann took up his work at that large man-made mound. / Source: Getty Images. Sophia was only briefly present during the 1873 excavations of Hisarlik, during which she was assaulted by a foreman. Schliemann later falsified the records to exaggerate Sophia's role in the excavations, and the story that the Treasure of Priam had been smuggled away from the site in Sophia's shawl. In 1902, after witnessing the sufferings of Greek soldiers of the recent war with Turkey, she and a group of society ladies sponsored the construction of a sanatorium for tuberculosis sufferers in Goudi.