[accessed October 2016]. Alexander Wilson, "The Father of American Ornithology", correctly made the differentiation between the two species. Common Nighthawk and its nests are protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, and the species is listed as Threatened under Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. in prep.). As a whole, they inhabit many different ecosystems. High precipitation, especially when accompanied by cold temperatures, is well-known to increase mortality and decrease reproductive success in aerial insectivores (Brown and Brown 2000; García-Pérez et al. Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). It is actually a member of the nightjar family. An inordinate fondness for beetles: first description of common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) diet in the boreal biome. Reasons for designation: This aerial insectivore is a widespread breeding bird across southern and boreal Canada. The Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas estimates an annual rate of change of -2.4% (CI: -3.7 to -1.2), i.e., a 38% decline overall, between 1981-85 and 2001-2005 (Cadman et al. The limited data available on longevity suggest it lives for 4-5 years on average, with a generation time of about 2-3 years. Knight, E.C. Knight, E.C., J.W. Bird Conservation International 22:411-428. Sandilands, A. in Biological Sciences at Cornell University and his Ph.D. in Zoology at University of Toronto. 2006). 2010; Paquette et al. Five of seven males fitted with satellite tags at breeding sites in northeastern Alberta completed a full annual cycle to wintering grounds and back to Alberta. One tropical storm, Hurricane Wilma, killed so many Chimney Swifts that it caused a detectable population decline, presumably by forcing them into continuous flight while not allowing efficient foraging (Dionne et al. Guralnick, M.W. - PhD Candidate, Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Technical Report Series No. Mercury and acid rain may affect the boreal forest population with unknown severity, primarily by affecting food availability. Sigurðsson, S., and J. Cracraft, J. English, P.A., J.J. Nocera, B.A. 2017), and certain threats, such as predation (Latta and Latta 2015) and collisions (Fense et al. The common nighthawk is likely the reason that Nebraska's state nickname was once the "Bugeater State", and its people were known as "bugeaters". The common nighthawk in the Greater Toronto Area. 2007). 2017. 2011. 2011), and their appearance across large areas may coincide with the passage of cold fronts (e.g., Coady 2007). Several other threats have been proposed, but appear to be less severe or affect only a small proportion of the population. 4.1 Transportation and service corridors - roads and railroads (Negligible) Bird Conservation Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon. Kantrud, H.A., and K.F. Camargo, and M. Sitkowski. Potential changes in insect abundance and community composition due to pesticide use could continue to have an impact on Common Nighthawk, perhaps including Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) control in eastern Canada, although pesticide use is declining and evidence of its effects are mixed, as reviewed in Environment Canada (2016). 2. population of Common Nighthawks is estimated to breed in Canada (Rich et al. John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, Ontario. Changes in breeding phenology and population size of birds. A few studies have linked these effects to reduced reproductive output in swallows (e.g., Ambrosini et al. Nature 511(7509):341-3. - MSc student, Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario. unpublished ms). The Birds of Concord: A Study of Population Trends. Pp. Studies show that wind turbines are not generally a threat to this species. Nocera, J.J., M.W. The common nighthawk is drawn into urban built-up areas by insects. The Common Nighthawk nests in a wide range of open, vegetation-free habitats, including dunes, beaches, recently harvested forests, burnt-over areas, logged areas, rocky outcrops, rocky barrens, grasslands, pastures, peat bogs, marshes, lakeshores, and river banks. 1. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Natural History Society of Prince Edward Island, Nature New Brunswick, New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, Nova Scotia Bird Society, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, and Prince Edward Island Department of Agriculture and Forestry, Sackville, New Brunswick. Crick. Neonicotinoid pesticides, which have been used increasingly since the 1990s, are known to cause declines in insect populations in the agricultural lands where they are applied, and in associated aquatic environments (Goulson 2014). Sinclair, P.H. 2017. Thanks also to the thousands of volunteers who participated in or served as coordinators for the Breeding Bird Survey and Canadian breeding bird atlases over the years. , The common nighthawk breeds during the period of mid-March to early October. 2008. Marra. Common Nighthawk Information. Lake.  As displayed in the latter portion of the 20th century, urban breeding is in decline. 2011; Knight pers. 2014. - Professor, Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. A croaking auk auk auk is vocalized by males while in the presence of a female during courtship. 2011). An increasing frequency of severe or extreme weather events is also likely impacting this species by reducing its productivity and increasing mortality. The fluctuation of water levels caused by operation of existing dams may flood nests, in a ongoing impact. This report may be cited as follows: COSEWIC. Risley, C. - Species Conservation Branch, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Peterborough, Ontario. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2011. - Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. comm. Despite the presence of three subspecies of Common Nighthawk in Canada, separated on the basis of minor differences in plumage colouration, there is no evidence for discrete genetic or morphological differences among them (Brigham et al. Fighting for Nighthawks. submitted), although these figures do not account for population size or exposure. Population trends in selected species of farmland birds in relation to recent developments in agriculture in the St. Lawrence Valley. +86 13247316905 / +237 697976666. email@example.com. The short-term trends (2005-2015) for spring and fall are 2.26% per year (95% CI: -1.42%, 5.94%) and 1.74% per year (95% CI: -2.19%, 5.67%), respectively, with positive values suggesting that the population may have stabilized over that more recent period. Common Nighthawks build no nest, laying their eggs instead on the bare ground. 2011), and a comparison of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA showed no clear genetic differences across the subspecies (Sigurðsson and Cracraft 2014). The Boreal Avian Modelling project, which collects data from additional sources in the northern parts of the breeding range, estimates a population of 270,000 adults in Canada, although this value is likely an underestimate. 2017. 2008. Nesting success is particularly hard to estimate in this species, because the altricial chicks often move away from the nest (Allen and Peters 2012; Kramer and Chalfoun 2012). They, in addition to other nightjars, are also sometimes called "bugeaters", for their insectivore diet. The overall impact of fire suppression on Common Nighthawk populations is unknown (Environment Canada 2016). However, 46 individuals were counted during a survey conducted the previous evening near sunset, using automated recording units deployed at half the BBS stops (Haché pers. A comparison of fatality rates of bats and Common Nighthawks (Chordeiles minor) at wind turbines in Canada and the United States. Common Nighthawks use gravel bars and other sparsely-vegetated grasslands or forest clearings for nesting. Subtle differences are reported to be a challenge in field identification. Bryant, L. Cole, and H.Q.P. Yukon Conservation Data Centre, Environment Yukon, Whitehorse, Yukon. Differences in spatial synchrony and interspecific concordance inform guild‐level population trends for aerial insectivorous birds. Également disponible en français sous le titre Ếvaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur L’engoulevent d’Amérique (Chordeiles minor) au Canada. comm. Common Nighthawk’s long annual migration between North and South America and brief breeding season restrict the species to one clutch of two eggs per season; this low reproductive rate may slow its recovery from population decreases. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 57:103-116. Travis, and D. Drake. Langevelde, F., M. Braamburg‐Annegarn, M.E. Reason for designation: This aerial insectivore is a widespread breeding bird across southern and boreal Canada. Beaulieu, J. Special Publication No. Ecography 39:774-786. pers. , The term "nighthawk", first recorded in the King James Version of 1611, was originally a local name in England for the European nightjar. Campomizzi. Canadian Journal of Zoology 94:637-642. Common nighthawks in Saskatoon. Robert, M., pers. 2006. Successional changes and habitat selection in hayfield bird communities. Brigham, and E.F. Baerwald. [accessed October 2016]. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4:1047-1058. comm. The exact range of Common Nighthawk outside North America is uncertain, because of limited search coverage and possible confusion with southern species of nighthawks. Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) foraging responses to agricultural land use and abundance of insect prey. Its dark brown and speckled plumage makes it almost invisible when perched on the ground. Seasonal patterns in tree swallow prey (Diptera) abundance are affected by agricultural intensification. Especially in urban and suburban habitats, medium-sized non-native predators, such as domestic and feral cats, have increased in numbers, potentially increasing the risk of predation, especially on eggs and young. The bird will sporadically defecate in flight. The most remarkable feature of this aerial insectivore is its small beak that belies the massiveness of its mouth. The Condor 116:8-23. Nighthawk nestlings are semiprecocial i.e., newly hatched young are downy, with open eyes and some capability of leaving the nest, and they often move well away from the nest site daily (up to 48 m), increasingly so as they age (Allen and Peters 2012; Kramer and Chalfoun 2012). 2006), but presumably with negligible effects at the population level. No collections were examined in the preparation of this report. 1993; Fletcher et al. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. The young are fed by regurgitation before sunrise and after sunset. It varied among four studies (one across several prairie states and provinces, and the others in New Jersey, Florida, and Alberta, each with sample sizes of 14-23 nests). Journal of Geography and Geology 7:32-55. They are one of a handful of birds that are known to inhabit recently burned forests, and then dwindle in numbers as successional growth occurs over the succeeding years or decades. 2016). Habitat use and home range characteristics of Common Nighthawks (Chordeiles minor) in mixed-grass prairie. New dams can dry out wetlands that support populations of flying insects (e.g., Foster 1991) and may flood nests and nesting habitat (Siddle 2010), an effect that may continue after construction as water levels fluctuate during dam operations. The male parent assists in feeding fledglings and will also feed the female during nesting. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences. The hunt ends as dusk becomes night, and resumes when night becomes dawn. xi + 25 pp. There is widespread evidence for shifts in the timing of both insect and bird breeding, and some evidence linking such mis-matches to reduced reproductive success or population declines (e.g., Jones and Cresswell 2010; Saino et al. Scientific and Geomatics Project Officer, COSEWIC Secretariat, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Rodewald, Ed.). The American Ornithologists' Union treated the smaller Antillean nighthawk as conspecific with the common nighthawk until 1982.. The eggs are elliptical, strong, and variably coloured with heavy speckling. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057457. In Canada, the species occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories, except Nunavut. It is a solitary nester, putting great distances between itself and other pairs of the same species, but a nest would more commonly occur in closer proximity to other species of birds. Hannon, and R. Chapman. Severe recent decrease of adult body mass in a declining insectivorous bird population. A rescue effect through immigration of Common Nighthawks from the much larger, more southern breeding population in the U.S.A. is very unlikely. Nighthawks will nest in or near old coal mines, and new mines or quarries could be of benefit by providing new cleared habitat. Species profile: The Uncommon Common Nighthawk. Recent studies have increased our knowledge of Common Nighthawk behaviour and habitat use (e.g., Brigham et al. Weeber, R., R. Russell, K. Hannah, and E. Howat. Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski, Jr, K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. Russell, R.W. Taylor. Green. Nebel, S., A.M. Mills, J.D. In such cases, some restrictions on the use, reproduction or communication of such copyrighted work may apply and it may be necessary to seek permission from rights holders prior to use, reproduction or communication of these works. A Review of the Impact of Artificial Light on Invertebrates. Neither dataset adequately samples this crepuscular species at the times when it is most active. This is particularly true during peaks in energy needs, such as chick-rearing and migration, when a change in insect availability, or in the timing of peaks in insect abundance, can have a disproportionate effect on energy budgets. Quarry Press, Inc., Kingston, Ontario. Larger flocks may be associated with certain rivers or coastlines (Brigham et al. Common Nighthawks arrive in the Northwest Territories to breed in mid- May to early June. Jones, T., and W. Cresswell. Overall, it is suspected to be a negligible threat to nighthawks in Canada, but it has been proposed as a threat to other aerial insectivores, mainly through its effect on abundance of flying insects. 2012. Biased representation of disturbance rates in the roadside sampling frame in boreal forests: implications for monitoring design. Tseng, M., K.M. Environmental Science Pollution Research International 22:103-118. 2010; Nocera 2012, 2014) also applies to threats to Common Nighthawk. Klemens, J. 2013. Scope is negligible, as it is unlikely that much additional land will be converted to agriculture (except perhaps in some northern areas, e.g., near Prince George, BC), although existing agricultural land may be farmed more intensively (e.g., through conversion of hay and fallow to cash crops). Since the last Common Nighthawk status assessment (COSEWIC 2007), new Bayesian analytical procedures have been used to calculate population trends from BBS data.  A monogamous habit has also recently been confirmed.. 2014. 2011). Mineau, P. and C. Palmer.  These birds range from 21 to 25 cm (8.3 to 9.8 in) in total length and from 51 to 61 cm (20 to 24 in) in wingspan. Conservation Biology 15:1772-1788. Pankratz, R. - Landbird Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Similar losses have been documented at the interface of the southern boreal mixedwood and aspen parkland in Alberta (Young et al. 2015). Messmer, T.A. Email correspondance to R.D.  Body mass can vary from 55 to 98 g (1.9 to 3.5 oz). Kramer, G.R. The only reliable way to distinguish Antillean nighthawk without disturbance is also by the differences in their calls. Logging is likely beneficial to this species in most cases, as it often maintains heterogeneity in the landscape, creating small-scale clear-cuts which provide openings for nesting and foraging habitat. Rosenberg, K.V., J. Nonetheless, the BAM population estimate is extrapolated from a larger portion of the Canadian range, with better coverage in the boreal region, more off-road sampling, and more sampling at times of day when the species is most detectable. Version 5.0. Biotic Stress and Yield Loss. The only other nightjars that breed in Canada are Eastern Whip-poor-will, which breeds throughout southern Canada, Chuck-will’s-widow (A. carolinensis), which breeds occasionally in extreme southern Ontario, and Common Poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii), which breeds in southern British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. Common nighthawk is medium-sized bird that belongs to the nightjar family. 2016). The Common Nighthawk is a master of camouflage. 1994. Breeding habitat includes open forests, especially those with cuts, burns, or rock outcrops (Farrell et al. Donald, P.F., R.E. 2014). The male will roost in a neighbouring tree (the spot he chooses changes daily); he guards the nest by diving, hissing, wing-beating or booming at the sites. Smith, A. Paquette, S.R., D. Garant, F. Pelletier, and M. Bélisle. This species is monogamous, laying a clutch of up to two eggs, and, because it is a long-distance migrant, raises only one brood per season (Brigham et al. Migratory Birds Conservation Division, Canadian Wildlife Service, Gatineau, Québec. Blais, D.V. Email correspondence to A.G. Horn. Indeed, the northern limit of the species’ breeding range in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut is uncertain, because of limited search effort. 2015. 2010. All passed again directly across the Gulf of Mexico in spring, then following a slightly more westerly route through the central US (Ng et al. 1990. 2007. Wotton, G.J. Ibis 149:250-260. Records do support wintering in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Environment and Climate Change Canada, Gatineau, Quebec. The Alberta atlas reports statistically significant declines in Alberta from 1987-1992 to 2000-2005, without reporting a measure of the magnitude or reliability of the estimate (The Federation of Alberta Naturalists 2007). - Biologiste, Coordonnatrice provinciale des espèces fauniques menacées ou vulnérables, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Québec, Québec. The State of Canada’s Forests. 1992. 2016. Common Nighthawk is 22–24 cm in length with a mass of 65–98 g (Brigham et al. For example, agricultural intensification might lower insect abundance in the wintering range, while increased wildfires might increase it in much of the breeding range (see further discussion below). Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor). The Canadian population is estimated from Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) results as 900,000 adults, about 10% of the global population. comm. Avery, R.L. Locally, nighthawk nesting sites have been crushed by livestock or agricultural equipment (Campbell et al. There are 9 subspecies of common nighthawk that can be found in North America. While a broad range of sites is used, including the ground, tree limbs, rooftops, and fenceposts, repeated use of particular sites suggests that key features are required, including unobstructed flight paths, shade from the sun, and camouflage (Fisher et al. The male dives and booms (see Vocalization) in an effort to garner female attention; the female may be in flight herself or stationary on the ground. 2004. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Gatineau, Québec. 2017; Ng et al. This moult commences in September at the breeding grounds; the majority of the body plumage is replaced but wing-coverts and rectrices are not completed until January–February, once the bird arrives at the wintering grounds. Knight, E.C. - Quantitative Ecologist, US Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. In contrast, the BAM project estimates that only 270,000 Common Nighthawks breed in Canada, based on an analysis of the amount of suitable habitat available to support 135,000 breeding males (Haché et al. 2017), which constitutes most of this species’ Canadian range. Habitat Historically, Common Nighthawks nested on the ground in prairies, rock outcrops, beaches and dunes, forest openings, abandoned quarries, and pine barrens, and began using flat gravel roofs by the late 1800s (Brigham et al. This threat may impact nighthawks breeding in the managed, southern portions of the Canadian range, as well as during migration and on wintering range, as there is evidence that Common Nighthawk spends winters in agricultural landscapes. Increasing phenological asynchrony between spring green-up and arrival of migratory birds. Differences among the subspecies are insufficiently discrete and evolutionarily significant for them to be considered separately, so the species is treated here as one designatable unit. Light pollution may concentrate insect prey in urban areas, resulting in a net benefit for this species, although it may also expose them to slightly higher levels of predation. Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe's farmland bird populations. Common Nighthawk is most often seen in flight, when it can be recognized by its distinctive bounding flight, white bar near the end of the wing, and nasal peent call. Climate change also continues to increase the frequency and severity of temperature variation worldwide (Huber and Gulledge 2011). Baskaran, B.A., R.M. Limiting factors. In prairie habitats, Common Nighthawk is more abundant in grassland than in cropland (Ng 2009; Newberry and Swanson 2016), and less abundant under grazing that is particularly intensive (Messmer 1990) or that encourages shrubs at the expense of grass (Pidgeon et al. However, home ranges may be much larger, with separate areas for roosting and foraging that may be up to 6 km from the nest site (Ng 2009). Conway, L.J. Common Nighthawk is the most frequently observed nightjar in North America, and the only one that breeds across the continent. Taylor, M.-A. Some species live in mountainous regions, while others live at sea level. As this species tends to nest late into mid-summer, it may be affected by summer timber harvesting. Its long-distance migration and restricted breeding season, combined with the small clutch size, limit its annual productivity and potential rate of population recovery. However, there is no evidence that this is an issue, and little information on how this species would be affected. xxii + 314pp. 2016. Toor, and K. Fograscher. Frequent flyers, the long-winged common nighthawk hunts on the wing for extended periods at high altitudes or in open areas. 2011). 1996; Corace et al. Easton, W. - Landbird Conservation Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Delta, British Columbia. Provincial or regional breeding bird atlases, in which volunteers search for breeding evidence of all species within a region over a five-year period, also provide trend information. 5th edition, Washington, D.C. Arroyo, M.T.K., R. Dirzo, C.A. 2017. - International Director, Bird Conservancy of the Rockies, Brighton, Colorado. The common nighthawk is a jay-sized bird about 10 inches in length. Probability of extinction in the wild is at least [20% within 20 years or 5 generations, or 10% within 100 years]: Analysis not conducted. 2006. The assigned overall threat impact is High-Low, and the following contributing threats were identified, listed in decreasing order of severity: 7.3 Other ecosystem modifications (High-low) 418-425 in K.A. Pipas, J.C. Luchsinger, J.E. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. - Head, Terrestrial and Marine Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Sackville, New Brunswick. Stewart, R.L.M., K.A. Overall, Canada’s prairie regions have lost most of their native grassland to planted grass and cropland, including a 10% loss between 1985 and 2001 (Watmough and Schmoll 2007). Their nasal call is a common sound during the summer both in cities and the countryside. submitted ). Vickery. Once aerial, with its buoyant but erratic flight, this bird is most conspicuous. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. comm. Gauthier, I. - MSc student, Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan. None of these are likely to be confused with nighthawks when in flight, as all have rounded wings and moth-like wingbeats that are quite different from the pointed wings and jerking wingbeats of nighthawks. In the face of predation, common nighthawks do not abandon the nest easily; instead they likely rely on their cryptic colouration to camouflage themselves. Toronto Birds 1(7):74-81. Brigham, and R.M.R. Typically dark (grey, black and brown), displaying cryptic colouration and intricate patterns, this bird is difficult to spot with the naked eye during the day. 9.5 Air-borne pollutants (Unknown) 8.2 Problematic species/diseases (Negligible) * See Definitions and Abbreviations on COSEWIC website and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (Feb 2014) for more information on this term. 2007. Higley (eds.). Landscape Ecology 32:343-359. 2011; Allen and Peters 2012). 2013. Different species of these birds live in different types of habitats. Most crossed the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea in both spring and fall, when a similar route was followed, with some birds stopping briefly in Florida, Cuba and Colombia. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor in Canada. 2015). Recent diet studies suggest that it often forages on insects from terrestrial rather than wetland habitats in boreal areas during breeding (Knight et al.  Peregrine falcons have also been confirmed to attack nighthawks as prey, although the one recorded predation attempt was unsuccessful. This species crosses much of North America on migration, and large numbers pass through Florida and Cuba in the fall and again in the spring, with many birds flying directly across the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (Brigham et al. xi + 50 pp. Landbird Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Drewitt, P.V. Loss, S.R., T. Will, S.S. Loss, and P.P. The common nighthawk forages higher above ground than the lesser nighthawk and has a different call. Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Also, nighthawks use a variety of habitats, and affected individuals could conceivably relocate to new nesting sites if needed, although this ability may be limited. For example, high precipitation in British Columbia in 1990 apparently caused starvation and nest failure in Common Nighthawk (Firman et al. The common nighthawk will nest on bare substrate such as sand, dirt, gravel, or bare rock. This threat may impact nighthawks in southern Canada and the southern part of boreal regions, as well as during migration and on wintering range, as there is evidence that this species spends winters in agricultural landscapes. However, the sparsely settled northern half of its breeding range in Canada is poorly searched. Nest success of grassland birds in Florida dry prairie. Data on wintering habitats are scant (Brigham et al. The Common Nighthawk pictured here is not related to hawks. submitted). The common nighthawk may be found in forests, desert, savannahs, beach and desert scrub, cities, and prairies, at elevations of sea level or below to 3,000 m (9,800 ft). 2011. 2002; Price et al. 2004; Campbell et al. COSEWIC: Designated Threatened in April 2007. Chordeiles minor is distinguished by its long, narrow, pointed wings, distinctive white stripe near the tip and a slightly notched tail. Birds of the Kingston region. - Biologiste, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Québec, Québec. Well-adapted to urban life: flat-topped gravel roofs provide nesting habitat and lighting systems around buildings serve as foraging areas for insects. Common and Antillean nighthawks have a longer outermost primary conveying a pointier wing tip than the lesser nighthawk. 2017). Harper, J.A. Perkins, D.W., and P.D. Lemaître, J. A. Kennedy, R. Dettmers, R. P. Ford, D. Reynolds, J.D. 2017. Saino, N., R. Ambrosini, D. Rubolini, J. von Hardenberg, A. Provenzale, K. Hüppop, O. Hüppop, A. Lehikoinen, E. Lehikoinen, K. Rainio, M. Romano, and L. Sokolov. Michel, N.L., A.C. Smith, R.G. Logging may affect the availability of aerial insects on which to forage, although this effect may sometimes be positive, and nighthawks are quite adept at locating food. Atlassing projects that have been repeated also show long-term Common Nighthawk declines, although these are over periods longer than 10 years. Tranmer, R.J. - MSc student, Ecological Restoration, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.