Revisiting the Nebular Theory • Nebular theory predicts massive Jupiter-like planets should not form inside the frost line (at << 5 AU). So - > is there a way to fix the nebular theory? In theory, other stars with planets should have gotten similar starts. Artist's impression of HD 188753 b, a hot Jupiter. The theory was invented by Emanuel Swedenborg in 1734. Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for the nebular theory of solar system formation? So the theory now is that the Hot Jupiters formed beyond the frost line in the same way that the giant planets are supposed to form, or that we imagine Jupiter in our solar system formed. Expert Answer (a) Protoplanetary Disks are collections of gravitationally bound gas and dust where stars and planets are formed. Astronomers were surprised by these "hot Jupiters", because theories of planetary formation had indicated that giant planets should only form at large distances from stars. Hot Jupiters were the first exoplanets to be discovered around main sequence stars and astonished us with their close-in orbits. Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital periods (P < 10 days). The discovery of MANY hot Jupiters around assumed central stars clearly shows the nebular hypothesis to be invalid . Why did this hypothesis gain favor over alternative ideas? Nebular theory. Hot Jupiters & Pulsar Planets. The nebular theory says that the inner planets are rocky because rocks and metals condense at high temperatures, while the outer planets are mostly gaseous because hydrogen compounds condense at lower temperatures, thus farther from the Sun. Assume that the migration hypothesis is the correct explanation for the hot Jupiters. Most of us who read up on extrasolar planets know of the theory of epistellar planets that involves a gas giant forming further from its host star and being drawn into a closer orbit, likely via braking from the surrounding nebular material early in its solar system's history (did I describe that right?). B) It has been modified to allow for … Originally proposed by Kant and Laplace in the 18th century, it became generally accepted in the 19th century, though a stellar-collision model became popular in the early 20th century. [1] The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". Part D Today, the leading hypothesis for the existence of hot Jupiters is that they formed in their outer solar systems and then migrated inward. The discovery of 'hot Jupiters' has forced a reexamination of nebular theory. A) It has been modified to allow for planets to migrate due to gravitational interactions. Conservation of energy tells you the hot Jupiter must fall deeper into the potential well. Scattering: You can imagine some multi-body interactions where a soon-to-be hot Jupiter gets close to another object, they interact strongly (compared to the effect of the star), and the other object is pushed away. Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital periods (P < 10 days). Project Description. In this view, the outer gas giants are only formed in cold regions, while hotter inner worlds are rocky. Mainstream scientists describe the formation of the solar system according to nebula theory, which explains that the solar system formed from a cloud of gas and dust particles known as nebula. We cant know exactly, but we can theorize and look for evidence to support these theories. A separate puzzle pertaining to hot Jupiters concerns their physical size. Only violent activity from the newly formed central star can result in HOT Jupiter-sized planets with ‘thick’ atmospheres. The solar system formed about 4.5 billion years ago. these Hot Jupiters are result of their host stars being cooler and smaller than our Sun and other similar stars. • Planetary migration or gravitational encounters may explain hot Jupiters as well as eccentric Jupiters. these Hot Jupiters formed by the same process as our solar system. Such encounters are quite rare, and the hot, tidally disrupted gases would dissipate rather than condense to planets. Since time immemorial, humans have been searching for the answer of how the Universe came to be. Think of a hypothetical discovery that would force further revisions of the theory of planet formation, and explain why this observation would contradict the theory. nebular theory works Condensation Theory Trouble for the Nebular Theory how the nebular theory doesnt work Dust its important role Condensation Theory how it works Summary Bibli ography 3 So how did our solar system form, and out of what? No modifications need to be made to the Nebular Theory Hint 1. 46) Discoveries force theory revisions: The discovery of "hot Jupiters" forced scientists to revise the nebular theory of solar system formation. Why did we come to accept Kepler's laws of planetary motion and the idea that Earth really is a planet going around the Sun? The prevailing scientific explanation for the origin of the Earth does a good job of not only explaining the Earth’s formation, but the Sun and all the other planets too. 49 suggests that hot Neptunes may originate from evaporation of hot Jupiters, and thus they may share common origins and evolution history (although note that ref. The Nebular Hypothesis The hypothesis of a Solar Nebula, also known as the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, is currently the most accepted explanation for the origin of the Solar System. They are a prime example of how exoplanets have challenged our textbook, solar-system inspired story of how planetary systems form and evolve. How can HOT Jupiters form from a relatively cool accretion disk? The theory was proposed by Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827). Our nebular theory of the formation of the Solar System says that planets like Jupier can't form near their star, so how did these "hot Jupiters" come to be as we see them? Our modern theory of solar system formation—the nebular theory—successfully accounts for all the major features of our own solar system. C) They formed as gas giants beyond the frost line and then migrated inwards. 49 … these Hot Jupiters are a result of being captured by their host star. condensation theory - based on evolutionary processes the preferred scientific model for the formation of the Solar System add effects of interstellar dust to the nebular theory However, when the first hot Jupiters were discovered, their existence seemed inconsistent with the nebular theory because this theory predicts that _____. • The discovery of hot Jupiters has forced a reexamination of the nebular theory. Astronomy Cast Episode 2: In Search of Other Worlds – lots of info on the current planet-finding techniques Alexander Wolszczan’s Pulsar Planets page; Pulsar Planets; Discussion on 51 Pegasi’s Planet – adapted from articles published in Sky and Telescope Magazine; The Planet at 51 Peg – Discover Magazine; Hot Jupiter many of the planets that have been discovered orbiting other stars are "hot Jupiters", or planets the size of Jupiter but that orbit very close to their stars. Hot Jupiters In Classical Nebular Theory, suggested years ago by Kant, the solar system is formed by a swirling mass of gas coalescing over time. Why are there no "hot Jupiters" in our own Solar System? (c) How do we reconcile the existence of “hot Jupiters,” which are commonly found around distant stars, with nebular theory?

hot jupiters and nebular theory

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